THE 3 PHASE POWER
RESOURCE SITE

3 Phase Power Grain Dryer
3 phase power is used today for many applications ranging from the above grain dryer to saw mills, conveyer belt systems, refrigeration and air conditioning, etc.

3 Phase Contents
- 3 Phase Power Home
- 3 Phase Wiring
- 3 Phase Power Calculation
- 3 Phase Power Converter
- 3 Phase Converters
  * Rotary Phase Converters
  * Static Phase Converters
- 3 Phase Generators
- 3 Phase Transformers
  * 3 Phase Isolation Transformers
- 3 Phase Motors
- 3 Phase Electricity
- 3 Phase Power Loads
- 3 Phase Frequency
  * Frequency Converters
- 3 Phase Distribution
- 2 Phase Systems
- 1 Phase Loads on 3 Phase Power
- 3 Phase Loads on 1 Phase Power


3 phase power three phase power three phase electricity three phase generator 3 phase converter, rotary three phase

 

3 Phase Distribution

To Buy 3 Phase Distribution Transformers
We Recommend TEMCo Brand.
Call 1-510-490-2187
Web Link:  Distribution Transformers

3 Phase Power Distribution and Transmission
3 phase electricity distribution is the process in the delivery of 3 phase power from the generation equipment to the business or location for use. This include the transmission over power lines, possibly through electrical substations and pole-mounted transformers, and the appropriate distribution 3 phase wiring and sometimes electricity meters.

3 Phase Power Distribution and Step Down Transformer


3 Phase Power Distribution Transformer

After numerous further conversions in the transmission and distribution network the 3 phase power is finally transformed to the standard mains voltage (the voltage of "house" or "household" current in American English). The power may already have been split into single phase at this point or it may still be 3 phase. Where the step-down is 3 phase, the output of this power transformer is usually star connected with the standard mains voltage (120V in North America and 230V in Europe) being the phase-neutral voltage.

Another system commonly seen in the USA is to have a delta connected secondary on the step down transformer with a center tap on one of the windings supplying the ground and neutral. This allows for 240V 3 phase as well as three different single phase voltages (120V between two of the phases and the neutral, 208V between the third phase (sometimes known as a wild leg) and neutral and 240V between any two phases) to be made available from the same supply.  

Generating 3 Phase Power From Single Phase
When single phase power is readily available but 3-phase power is not already allocated, there is an easy way to generate 3 phase power with a 3 phase power generating Rotary Phase Converter or with a modern Motor Generator Set.  Today these are a super efficient method to get 3 phase power anywhere single phase is already available.  Read more about super efficient 3 phase generating Rotary Phase Converters here.

Electric Power Distribution History
In the early days of electricity generation, direct current (DC) generators would be connected to loads at the same voltage. The generation, transmission and loads all needed to be of the same voltage because, at the time, there was not a common way of doing DC voltage conversion (other than motor-generator sets which today have became super efficient). The voltages usually had to be fairly low with old generation systems due to the difficulty and danger of distributing high voltages to small loads. The losses in a line transmission cable are proportional to the square of the current, the length of the cable, and the resistive nature of the conductor line wire material, and are inversely proportional to cross-sectional area. Early power transmission networks were already using copper, which is one of the best conductors that is also very economically feasible for this application. To reduce the current while keeping power transmission constant requires increasing the voltage which, as previously mentioned, was, at that time, problematic. This meant in order to keep losses to a reasonable level the (DC) Edison power transmission system needed thick cables and local power generators.

Alternating Current (AC) Becomes Most Common Standard
Soon, the adoption of alternating current (AC) for electricity generation dramatically changed the situation. Power transformers, installed at power substations, could be used to raise the voltage from the generators and reduce it to supply loads. Increasing the voltage reduced the current in the power transmission and distribution lines.  Thus the size of conductors required and distribution losses incurred were also reduced. This made it more economic to distribute power over long distances. The ability to transform to extra-high voltages enabled power generators to be located far from loads with transmission systems to interconnect generating stations and distribution networks.

Though due to power line losses, it is still often valuable to locate the power generators nearby the actual power load.

In North America, the early power distribution systems used a voltage of 2200 volts corner-grounded delta. Over time, this was gradually increased to 2400 volts. As cities grew, most 2400 volt systems were upgraded to 2400/4160 Y three-phase systems, which also benefited from better surge suppression due to the grounded neutral. Some city and suburban power distribution systems continue to use this range of voltages, but most have been converted to 7200/12470Y.

European systems used higher voltages, generally 3300 volts to ground, in support of the 220/380Y volt power systems used in those countries. In the UK, urban power generation and transmission systems progressed to 6.6 kV and then upgraded to 11 kV (phase to phase), the most common power distribution voltage.

North American and European power distribution systems also differ in that North American power distribution systems tend to have a greater number of low-voltage step-down transformers located closer to customers' premises. For example, in the US a pole-mounted transformer in a suburban area may supply only one or a very few houses or small businesses, whereas in the UK a typical urban or suburban low-voltage substation might be rated at 2MW of power and supply a whole neighborhood. This is because the higher voltage used in Europe (230V vs 120V) may be carried over a greater distance without an unacceptable power loss. An advantage of the North American setup is that failure or maintenance on a single power transformer will only affect a few customers. Advantages of the UK setup are that fewer transformers are required; larger and more efficient transformers are used, and due to diversity there need be less spare capacity in the transformers, reducing power wastage.

Rural power electrification systems, in contrast to urban power systems, tend to use higher voltages because of the longer distances covered by those power distribution lines. 7200 volts is commonly used in the United States; 11kV and 33kV are common in the UK, New Zealand and Australia; 11kV and 22kV are common in South Africa. Other voltages are occasionally used in unusual situations or where a local utility simply has engineering practices that differ from the normal practices

Power Distribution Network Layout
Power
distribution networks are typically arranged out in one of two types, radial or interconnected. A radial network leaves the station and passes through the network area with no connection to any other supply. This is typical of long rural lines with isolated load areas. An interconnected network is generally found in more urban areas and will have multiple connections to other points of supply.

These points of connection are normally open but allow various configurations by closing and opening switches. The benefit of the interconnected model is that in the event of a fault or required maintenance a small area of network can be isolated and the remainder kept on supply.  The only downside to this design occurs when there is a major power outage that causes a domino effect damaging the power supply systems from the whole network leaving more customers without power.  There are protections in place to keep this from happening though it still occurs every few years in places where this method of power distribution and transmission is used.

Characteristics of the supply given to customers are generally mandated by law and by contract between the electric power supplier and customer. Variables include: AC or DC - Virtually all public electricity supplies are AC today. Users of large amounts of DC power such as some electric railways, telephone exchanges and industrial processes such as aluminum smelting either operate their own generating equipment or have equipment to derive DC from the public AC supply).

Phase and Frequency Converters
There are several instances where the equipment may need not only the phase changed from 1-phase, or the rare 2-phase (in the US this is mostly used in Chicago) to 3 phase power, but also the frequency converted from 50Hz to 60Hz or 400Hz (400Hz is mostly used in ships and aircraft).  Click here to read more about 3 phase frequency converters.

Continue And Read About Additional 3 Phase Power Details:

- 3 Phase Power Home
- 3 Phase Wiring
- 3 Phase Power Calculation
- 3 Phase Electricity
- 3 Phase Power Loads
- 3 Phase Power Converter
- 3 Phase Converters
  * Rotary Phase Converters
  * Static Phase Converters
- 3 Phase Generators
- 3 Phase Transformers
  * 3 Phase Isolation Transformers
- 3 Phase Motors
- 3 Phase Frequency
  * Frequency Converters
- 3 Phase Distribution
- 2 Phase Systems
- 1 Phase Loads on 3 Phase Power
- 3 Phase Loads on 1 Phase Power

Contribute 3 Phase Power Articles to The 3 Phase Power Resource Site:
If you would like to contribute additional 3 phase info to our 3 phase power resource site please feel free to email your 3 phase power article to us at info@3phasepower.org.  By doing so you are giving us full rights to edit and distribute the info freely worldwide in perpetuity in any way we see fit.  Note that The 3 Phase Power Resource Site is run by all volunteers and thus we do not have the ability to respond to all emails.  Also not all info submitted will be added to the site.  It is at the sole discretion of our electrical editors.  Thank you for contributing! 

 

Smooth 3 Phase Power Wave Form (center)
Because of its smooth wave length properties, 3 phase electrical power is used across the U.S. and throughout the world.



3 Phase Transformer

3 Phase Substation Transformer
(above)
There are a variety of 3 phase transformer types and voltages, depending on your power needs.


3 Phase Power Saw

3 Phase Power Saw (above)
There are a whole variety of power equipment and power tools which require 3 phase power to run.


TEMCo 3 Phase Converter

3 Phase Converter
(above)
Some Types of Rotary Phase Converters will run on 1 phase power and generate 3 phase power to run other 3 phase equipment.


 
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